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Scientists Use 3D Printing to Print Non-magnetic Metal Powders into Magnetic Alloys

Gold is a high-quality hedge hedging tool, favored by investors. Especially in recent years, with the increasing instability of the world economy, gold has become one of the preferred asset allocations of investors because of its functions of hedging and fighting inflation. 

Earlier, the worsening situation in Ukraine sent gold prices soaring to a two-year high of $2,070 an ounce. But gold, along with other commodities, fell back last week as conditions changed and bulls took profits, hitting a low of $1,895 an ounce. Rising gold prices may also have an impact on the 3D printing metal powder prices. 

According to China Business News, Goldman Sachs raised its gold price forecast in early March, considering Asian buyers' gold consumption demand, investment demand and central bank gold purchase demand continue to rise. Three -, six - and 12-month targets were raised to $2,300, $2,500 and $2,500 an ounce, respectively, from $1,950, $2,050 and $2,150. The last time all three accelerated was in 2010-11 when gold prices rose nearly 70%. 

The World Gold Council has also noted that global gold demand is at its highest level in nearly two years, which is linked to a recovery in consumption and consumer sentiment to combat inflation. 

Scientists at Skoltech University in Russia used a 3D printer to create an alloy of two materials whose composition ratios varied from one region of the sample to the next, and the resulting alloy had gradient magnetism, even though none of the initial materials were magnetic.
 
3D printing, a rapid prototyping method, is maturing for aircraft parts, medical implants and prosthetics, jewelry, custom shoes, and more. 
 
The main advantage of 3D printing is the ability to create objects with very complex shapes that are either too expensive to produce or completely impossible to produce using traditional casting, rolling, stamping, or machining methods. 3D printing speeds up prototyping time and offers greater flexibility in product personalization and the number of batches. Another significant advantage of 3D printing is its low waste. 
 
However, 3D printing has its limitations, requiring objects to be made entirely of homogeneous materials or mixtures. If the composition is different in different parts of the product, it is possible to obtain samples with changing characteristics. For example, A bar made of an alloy of two metals has A variable ratio of composition: one end starts with 100 percent of metal A, then 50 percent of each, then 100 percent of metal B, and so on. Thus, the properties of the obtained materials (including magnetic materials) can vary in a gradient, which makes them potentially useful for the manufacture of motor rotors, magnetic encoder strips, transformers, etc.
 
Skoltech scientists have researched and made such a kind of material, with the original ingredients A and B being two alloys: aluminum-bronze (copper, aluminum, and iron) and austenitic stainless steel (iron, chromium, and nickel, among others). Both alloys are paramagnetic, which means they are not attracted by magnets. But if you mix them, you get what's called a "soft magnetic material" ferromagnet, which is attracted to a permanent magnet. 
 
The researchers used the two paramagnetic materials to create a gradient alloy. They used an InssTekMX-1000 3D printer, which works by depositing material using directional energy action, feeding a powdery material, and melting it with a laser at the same time. The resulting materials exhibit varying degrees of ferromagnetic properties, depending on the proportions of the components. 
 
The researchers also theorized that the atomic structure of the alloy contributes to the expression of ferromagnetism in the alloy: although both materials have so-called face-centered cubic crystal structures, the combination results in a magnetic body-centered cubic structure. 
 
Gradient soft magnetic alloys can be used in mechanical engineering, for example, in the production of electric motors. The results also show that the method of surface treatment of materials using directional energy action can not only obtain gradient materials using 3D printing but also discover new alloys. The technology is efficient and suitable for the rapid production of large parts.
 
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Recently, the first press conference of the Boao Forum For Asia Annual Conference 2022 was held. Two flagship reports were released at the conference: "Asia's Economic Prospects and Integration Process 2022" and "Sustainable Asia and the World 2022-Green Transformation in Action in Asia".

The flagship report points out that the global economy will recover in 2021, and the pace of economic integration in the Asia-Pacific has not stopped even in the face of the impact of COVID-19. The Asia-Pacific region has provided new impetus for the world's economic recovery and institutional building.  

The report gives an outlook on the Asian economy, noting that a number of factors will affect Asian economic growth. For example, mutated strains such as Delta and Omicron have become more transmissible, and many economies are experiencing epidemic peaks again. The Ukraine crisis has triggered geopolitical changes in Asia and Europe, leading to higher commodity prices, which may affect the global energy supply and energy transformation.

The report pointed out that the Asian economy will still be in the process of recovery in 2022, but the growth rate may moderate. According to the report, Asia's economic growth in 2022 is likely to be lower than the current IMF forecast, which is projected at 4.8%.

Affected by several factors, the supply of the 3D printing metal powder is erratic and thus its prices are expected to go higher in the future.

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